Types of assignments
Your assignments will often be in the form of an essay or a report, but there are a number of other assignment types that you may have to do during your studies.
Below is an overview of the different assignment types you may encounter.
Note: All of the online sources linked to on this page are for general guidance only. Different education institutions and disciplines have different requirements. Also, different subjects or lecturers/tutors may have different conventions and expectations for written work.
So before you start an assignment make sure you check what is needed in:
- your course material
- the course page in Online Campus.
And if you’re still not sure contact your lecturer/tutor.
Click on the headings below to find out more about each of these assignment types:
An essay is a piece of writing on a specific subject, topic or issue. Essays are made up of the following:
• Introduction - Essays always begin with an introduction, which says what you will be talking about, how you will talk about it, and what you will show in the essay (your thesis).
• Body – Where you discuss your main points. This means introducing your point, explaining it, and giving supporting evidence about your point and how it relates to your thesis.
• Conclusion – This is where you restate your introduction – the subject, the main points, and the thesis.
For more information on essay writing:
The writing process – Study and Learning Centre - RMIT (Opens in new window)
Essay writing with readings – Otago University (Opens in new window)
Essay writing – Edinburgh Napier University (Opens in new window)
Essay writing - Monash University (Opens in new window)
Essay writing - Purdue Online Writing Lab (Opens in new window)
Reports generally involve presenting your investigation and analysis of information or an issue, recommending actions and making proposals. There are many different types, including:
• Business reports, which provide information that someone needs to help them make decisions.
• Scientific and research reports, which provide information on something that was done, such as some research. Their purpose is to describe, analyse and evaluates what was learned
When writing a report, always keep the reader in mind. You want them to agree with your report and/or act upon it. They need to:
• be clear, concise and easy to understand
• be correct (both the contents and the English must be correct)
• have a clear recognisable structure or format, so that they are easy to understand
• be believable.
Structuring a report
All reports have a similar structure, but some details may differ. How they differ usually depends on:
• The type of report (for example, whether it's a research report, laboratory report, business report or investigative report).
• How formal the report has to be.
• The length of the report.
Depending on the type of report, the structure can include:
• A title page.
• Executive summary.
• An introduction.
• Terms of reference.
For more information on reports:
The basic structure of a report (PDF, 262KB, opens in new window)
How to write a report
Report writing - Edinburgh Napier University (Opens in new window)
A case study is an in-depth investigation conducted over a given length of time. They are used to collect and present detailed information about a person, group or situation, to try to understand what has happened and why, or to analyse the situation to solve a problem. A case study has a number of different phases:
• Identifying the problem or issue.
• Linking theory to real life.
• Research, including interviews and/or role play.
• Analysis of the information.
• Deciding on a solution or reach a conclusion(s).
• Justifying your conclusion(s).
• Making recommendations.
• Outlining how the recommendations can be implemented.
Writing a case study
A written case study is usually made up of some, or all, of the following parts:
• An executive summary / abstract / overview.
• Introduction / background.
• Discussion, including the methods used.
• Appendices (if relevant).
For more information about case studies:
Answering a case study - RMIT University (Opens in new window)
An abstract is a short summary of an academic article, thesis, conference presentation or an in-depth research paper. The aim of an abstract is to provide a brief overview of the purpose of the paper. The terms précis or synopsis are sometimes used instead of abstract.
An abstract usually contains:
• a brief problem statement, i.e. the objective
• an outline of the method(s) or approach followed
• the results or findings of the investigation
• the implications of what was found, and
• a conclusion(s).
For more information on abstracts:
Writing an abstract – Victoria University (PDF, 297KB, opens in new window)
An annotated bibliography is a list of resources, including books, articles and documents. Each entry is followed by a concise summary and evaluation of the resource, i.e. the annotation.
For more information on bibliographies:
Annotated bibliography – Online Information Literacy, Otago University (Opens in new window)
A review is an evaluation of a publication, project or a collection of literature on a specific topic. Reviews focus on the purpose of something, and whether the purpose has been achieved. They summarise and synthesise arguments and ideas, but don't add new ideas. A review is similar to a critical analysis.
For more information about writing reviews:
Writing book reviews – University of Lethbridge library website (Opens in new window)
Writing a critical review – UNSW website (Opens in new window)
Writing literature reviews – Language and learning online, Monash University website (Opens in new window)
Steps for writing an assignment
Copyright and disclaimer information
Find The Model That Works For You: 12 Types Of Blended Learning
by TeachThought Staff
Blended Learning is not so much an innovation as it is a natural by-product of the digital domain creeping into physical spaces.
Broadly speaking, blended learning just means a mix of learning online and face-to-face, which means it’s likely your students are already doing some form of blended learning, and have for years.
As digital and social media become more and more prevalent in the life of learners, it was only a matter of time before learning became ‘blended’ by necessity.
Finding The Model That Works For Your School, Classroom, And Students
In The Definition Of Blended Learning, we offered that ‘blended learning is a model that combines online and face-to-face learning spaces and experiences.’ Below, we identify and describe 12 different types of blended learning.
Obviously, there aren’t just 12. It could be argued that there are thousands of types of blended learning varying by content, scale, technology, learning spaces, etc.
The purpose of this post is to A) Explain the most commonly referred to types of blended learning as most educators know them and B) Help you think more about blended learning as a flexible concept that ideally empowers both teachers and students to improve learning outcomes so that you can C) Identify and adapt a blended learning model that’s right for your school, classroom, and students.
6 Types Of Blended Learning You’ve Probably Heard Of
1. Station Rotation Blended Learning
Station-Rotation blended learning is a: “…model (that) allows students to rotate through stations on a fixed schedule, where at least one of the stations is an online learning station. This model is most common in elementary schools because teachers are already familiar rotating in “centers” or stations.”
Similar to: Lab Rotation blended learning
Primarily characterized by: the fixed schedule that guides the ‘blending’
2. Lab Rotation Blended Learning
‘The Lab Rotation’ model of blended learning, similar to “Station Rotation,’ works by “allow(ing) students to rotate through stations on a fixed schedule…in a dedicated computer lab allow(ing) for flexible scheduling arrangements with teachers…enabl(ing) schools to make use of existing computer labs.”
Similar to: Station Rotation blended learning
Primarily characterized by: the use school computer labs in new ways
3. Remote Blended Learning(also referred to as Enriched Virtual)
In Enriched Virtual blended learning, the student’s focus is on completing online coursework while only meeting with the teacher intermittently/as-needed.
This approach differs from the Flipped Classroom model in the balance of online to face-to-face instructional time. In an Enriched Virtual blended learning model, students wouldn’t see/work with/learning from a teacher on a daily basis face-to-face but would in a ‘flipped’ setting.
Similar to: A mix of Self-Directed, Flex blended learning, Flipped Classroom
Primarily characterized by: students completely coursework remotely and independently.
4. Flex Blended Learning
The ‘Flex’ is included in types of Blended Learning and its model is one in which… “a course or subject in which online learning is the backbone of student learning, even if it directs students to offline activities at times.
Students move on an individually customized, ﬂuid schedule among learning modalities. The teacher of record is on-site, and students learn mostly on the brick-and-mortar campus, except for any homework assignments. The teacher of record or other adults provide face-to-face support on a flexible and adaptive as-needed basis through activities such as small-group instruction, group projects, and individual tutoring.”
Similar to: Remote blended learning, Inside-Out blended learning
Primarily characterized by: its versatility to meet the needs of a variety of formal and informal learning processes (schools, organizations, homeschooling, etc.)
5. The ‘Flipped Classroom’ Blended Learning
Perhaps the most widely known version of blended learning, a ‘Flipped Classroom’ is one where students are introduced to content at home, and practice working through it at school supported by a teacher and/or peers. In this way, traditional roles for each space are ‘flipped.’
Similar to: Remote blended learning
Primarily characterized by: the retention of traditional learning forms in new contexts (i.e., studying at school and learning at home)
6. Individual Rotation Blended Learning
The Individual Rotation model allows students to rotate through stations, but on individual schedules set by a teacher or software algorithm. Unlike other rotation models, students do not necessarily rotate to every station; they rotate only to the activities scheduled on their playlists.”
Similar to: Mastery-Based blended learning
Primarily characterized by: the personalization of student learning as determined by individual schedules that have the chance to better meet the needs of each student
6 Types Of Blended Learning You Probably Haven’t Heard Of
7. Project-Based Blended Learning
Blended Project-Based Learning is a model in which the student uses both online learning—either in the form of courses or self-directed access—and face-to-face instruction and collaboration to design, iterate, and publish project-based learning assignments, products, and related artifacts.
Similar to: Self-Directed blended learning, Outside-In blended learning
Primarily characterized by: the use of online resources to support project-based learning
8. Self-Directed Blended Learning
In Self-Directed blended learning, students use a combination of online and face-to-face learning to guide their own personalzed inquiry, achieve formal learning goals, connect with mentors physically and digitally, etc. As the learning is self-directed, the roles of ‘online learning’ and physical teachers change, and there are no formal online courses to complete.
In Self-Directed blended learning, one challenge for teachers is to be able to judge the and (somehow) success of the learning experience without de-authenticating it.
For students, the challenge is to seek out models of products, processes, and potential that can provide the kind of spark that can sustain learning while being self-aware enough to know what’s working and why, and to make adjustments accordingly. Some students need very little to soar, while others need support through very clear pathways that they can guide themselves through with autonomy and self-criticism.
Similar to: Inside-Out blending learning, Project-Based blended learning
Primarily characterized by: the exchange of traditional academic work for student-centered inquiry
9. Inside-Out Blended Learning
In Inside-Out blended learning, experiences are planned to ‘finish’ or ‘end up’ beyond the physical classroom, but still require and benefit from the unique advantages of both physical and digital spaces.
In both the Outside-In and Inside-Out models, the nature of the ‘online learning’ is less critical than the focus on platforms, spaces, people, and opportunity beyond the school walls. (The ‘online’ components could be self-directed inquiry and/or formal eLearning courses and curriculum.)
Because the learning pattern is ‘outward,’ Project-Based blended learning is an excellent example of the Inside-Out model.
As with Outside-In blended learning, there is a need for expert guidance, learning feedback, content teaching, and psychological and moral support from face-to-face interactions on a daily basis.
Well-designed, each of the three ‘areas’ plays to its strengths and complements the other two.
Similar to: Outside-In blended learning, Blended Project-Based Learning
Primarily characterized by: student movement between digital and physical spaces
10. Outside-In Blended Learning
In Outside-In blended learning, experiences are planned to ‘start’ in the non-academic physical and digital environments students use on a daily basis, but finish inside a classroom.
This could mean traditional letter grades and assessments forms, or less traditional teaching and learning that simply uses the classroom as a ‘closed-circuit’ publishing ‘platform’—a safe space to share, be creative, collaborate, and give and receive feedback that grows student work.
Well-designed, each of the three ‘areas’ plays to its strengths and complements the other two. While the pattern is Outside-In, unlike Remote blended learning there is still a need for guidance, teaching, and support from face-to-face interactions on a daily basis.
Similar to: Inside-Out blended learning
Primarily characterized by: student movement between digital and physical spaces; the potential authenticity of student work
11. Supplemental Blended Learning
In this model, students complete either entirely online work to supplement their day-to-day face-to-face learning, or entirely face-to-face learning experiences to supplement the learning gained in online courses and activities.
The big idea here is supplementing—critical learning objectives are met entirely in one space while the ‘opposite’ space provides the student with specific supplementing experiences that the other did not or could not provide.
12. Mastery-Based Blended Learning
Students rotate between online and face-to-face learning (activities, assessments, projects, etc.) based on the completion mastery-based learning objectives.
Assessment design is crucial in any mastery-based learning experience; the ability to use face-to-face and digital assessment tools is either powerful or ‘complicated’ depending on the mindset of the learning designer.
*Sources include TeachThought, the Christensen Institute and blendedlearning.org